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Advanced Motor Fuels in Spain


Drivers and Policies

Biofuel consumption in Spain is primarily supported by the mandatory targets for sale or consumption established in Royal Decree 1085/2015, on the promotion of biofuels. These targets (in energy content) are 5% (2017), 6% (2018), 7% (2019), and 8.5% (2020).

The Alternative Energy Vehicle Mobility Incentive Plan (MOVEA) forms part of Spain’s 2014–2020 Alternative Energy Vehicle Incentive Strategy. In 2017, Royal Decree 617/2017 was issued to regulate the guidelines for the MOVEA 2017 Plan. Furthermore, the Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving (IDAE) launched another plan called MOVALT. Both programs established direct granting of aid for the purchase of electric, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, and bi‑fuel vehicles.


Advanced Motor Fuels Statistics

Figure 1 shows data on fuel consumption in 2017. Biofuels remain the major alternative transportation fuel in Spain.



Fig. 1    Fuel Consumption (share in energy content) and Alternative Fuel Consumption (ktoe) in Spain in 2017


As for the vehicle fleet, of a total of 34.8 million vehicles, around 55,000 are fuelled by LPG and 8,471 use natural gas (compressed or liquefied), while only a few hydrogen vehicles have been developed in pilot projects.

Regarding the number of public filling stations with alternative fuels, Table 1 shows updated data on stations that sell high-biofuel blends, LPG, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen.

Table 1    Filling Stations for Alternative Fuels in Spain

Alternative Fuel

Number of Filling Stations

Biodiesel blends

B20 or lower


B30 or higher


Bioethanol blends

E15 or lower






Natural gas




Sources: MINETAD (Geoportal), AOGLP, GASNAM, AEH2.

As mentioned before, biofuels represent the largest share of alternative transportation fuels in Spain. Figures 2, 3, and 4 provide information on the feedstock, feedstock origin country, and production country of biofuels consumed in Spain in 2017.



Fig. 2    Feedstock, Feedstock Origin Country, and Production Country of Biodiesel Consumed in Spain in 2017

Source: CNMC.



Fig. 3    Feedstock, Feedstock Origin Country, and Production Country of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Consumed in Spain in 2017

Source: CNMC.



Fig. 4    Feedstock, Feedstock Origin Country and Production Country of Bioethanol Consumed in Spain in 2017

Source: CNMC.


Research and Demonstration Focus

As regards biofuels, in 2017, the Spanish Biorefineries Manual was published. It is intended to define the types of biorefineries that are suitable for development in Spain and to address the environmental, socio-economic, and political framework within which biorefineries may be deployed.

The National Action Framework for Alternative Energies in Transport includes several programs intended to support research, development, and innovation: creation of clusters for innovation, incentives, cooperation through technology platforms, and support to research centers.

Research activity in relation to hydrogen technologies continues to be carried out in Spain within the frameworks of national and European initiatives.



According to the National Renewable Energy Action Plan, to fulfill the committed targets, consumption of biofuels is expected to reach 2,713 kilotonnes of oil equivalent in 2020.

The National Action Framework for Alternative Energies in Transport states that, by 2020, the natural gas fleet will reach 18,000 vehicles, the LPG fleet will consist of 200,000 to 250,000 vehicles, and it seems feasible that more than 500 hydrogen vehicles will be commercialized.


Additional Information Sources

  • AEH2: Spanish Hydrogen Association, www.aeh2.org (in Spanish).
  • AOGLP: Spanish Association of LPG Operators, www.aoglp.com (in Spanish).
  • Bioplat: Spanish Biomass Technology Platform, www.bioplat.org.
  • CNMC: National Markets and Competition Commission, www.cnmc.es (in Spanish).
  • CORES: Corporación de Reservas Estratégicas (Oil Stockholding Agency), www.cores.es (in Spanish).
  • GASNAM: Spanish Association of Natural Gas for Mobility, www.gasnam.es (in Spanish).
  • Geoportal (MINETAD): Filling Stations, www.geoportalgasolineras.es (in Spanish).
  • IDAE: Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving), www.idae.es (in Spanish).
  • MINETAD: Ministry of Energy, Tourism and Digital Agenda www.minetad.gob.es (in Spanish).
  • MOVEA Plan 2017: www.minetad.gob.es/industria/es-ES/Servicios/plan-movea/2017/Paginas/ayudas-movea.aspx (in Spanish).


Major Changes

The Spanish Biorefineries Manual was developed, and two new plans for the granting of aid for the purchase of alternative fuels vehicles were approved.


Benefits of Participation in the AMF TCP

Membership in the AMF TCP provides wider and easier access to information on advanced motor fuels, as well as helpful analyses that can be used to guide national policies and programs.