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Task 65


Powertrain options for Non-Road Mobile Machinery

Purpose, Objectives and Key Questions

This Task will explore potential of energy and powertrain options and feasibility for NRMM applications in different use cases. NRMM is a wide selection of different kinds of machinery operating in different environments. This sets a question of what kind of powertrain and energy options fit the best in each operation without risking the productivity, usability, and security of supply.

The Task aims to answer in following main questions and objectives:

  • Energy and powertrain options for NRMM
  • Implications in usage of new carbon neutral and low carbon powertrains to security of supply and productivity
  • End-use perspective of alternative powertrains (fuels and other energy carriers)
  • Local air pollutant emissions of NRMM, especially NRMM operating in urban areas
  • Perspectives for CO2 regulation in different countries

Work packages

The following work packages are foreseen:

WP1: Task management
  • Preparation of task documentation
  • Facilitation of information exchange between task participants
  • Progress reports at ExCo meetings
  • Contributions to the AMF Annual Report
  • Preparation of final report (ev. from individual contributions of the participants)
  • Preparation of key messages
  • Task meetings
  • Dissemination and webinars
WP2: Review of alternative powertrains deployment and regulatory framework
  • National inventory of machinery in selected countries
  • Availability of alternative powertrain machinery
  • Strategies and visions for decarbonization of NRMM in different counties
  • Global regulatory framework
WP3: Testing
  • In-use testing with PEMS
    • Emissions of snowmobile and ATV’s
    • Emissions of airport, agriculture and generator sets
  • Engine dynamometer testing
    • Performance and emissions of hybrid powertrains
WP4: Modelling and simulation
  • Analyses of NRMM powertrain and energy options potential in different use cases with equipment operation, LCA, and TEA
WP5: Cooperation with other IEA TCP’s
  • Combustion, more in detailed TBC later
  • HEV, more in detailed TBC later

Expected Results / Deliverables

The task will provide a synthesis of potential of different energy/fuel options and powertrains for NRMM applications. In addition, the emission performance of current technologies is investigated and reflected against the possible future regulation frameworks.

The Task will produce a written Final Report, which includes:

  • Test data of NRMM from engine dynamometer and in-use conditions; regulated emissions, energy consumption, CO2 emissions and alternative energy/fuel options assessed also with the well-to-wheel approach.
  • Feasibility of different energy and powertrain options in NRMM depending on use case, location, available energy sources and regulation.
  • Review of regulatory environment in selected countries.
  • National inventories of NRMM and strategies for adapting zero and low carbon NRMM in use.


Project Duration

November 2023 - November 2025


   Task Sharing

   Cost Sharing


Canada, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, USA

Possibly Sweden to Canada, will be decided later

Total Budget

€ 1.327.000,00

Task Manager

Rasmus Pettinen
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland