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Task 59


Lessons learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Purpose, Objectives and Key Questions

Decarbonizing the transport sector is one of the key goals of national and international climate change mitigation policies. Alternative fuels and propulsion systems are of particular importance in reducing GHG emissions from this area. Many countries are actively seeking to increase the share of renewable energy sources in the transport sector.

However, experience with various attempts to introduce alternative fuels and vehicles to the market has shown that this is not always successful. Several participants in the AMF TCP have therefore proposed a task on lessons learned from market launch attempts.

The questions that this project should answer were:

  • Which factors determine whether the market launch of alternative fuels and vehicles will succeed or not?
  • Can success factors and pitfalls, lessons, and recommendations for better action be deduced from the experiences of different countries in the last decades?
  • How can people involved in the development of market introduction measures be supported?


To answer these questions, Task 59 analyzed particular case studies that took into account the specific framework conditions for each country. The first step was to identify relevant case studies for each participating country.

Fig. 1      Overview of the defined specific case studies.

Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden and the United States collected data and information on past market introduction case studies and described these according to the developed template. In addition to the descriptions, relevant stakeholders were interviewed and their insights were collected.

The case studies’ drivers for market implementation, country-specific circumstances, measures taken, and stakeholders involved were checked against the result of the market implementation as part of the analysis. Success factors and show-stoppers as identified in the case study descriptions were supplemented with the results from analysis by the task.

Results have been discussed in an expert workshop with experts from and outside the AMF TCP. Based on the results and discussions of the expert workshop, the task determined the final lessons learned and recommendations, as well as policy briefs and key messages.

Key Findings

Stakeholder interaction

One of the first insights of the project was the complexity of the interaction of the different stakeholder groups. The different groups of stakeholders include automotive industry, motor fuels industry, fuel and vehicle marketers, costumers, government and advocates. For a successful market introduction, the major concerns of all these groups must be addressed and it is beneficial that major issues are not overlooked. Benefits for all stakeholders need to be developed.

Implementation barriers

There are many implementation barriers which can occur within, prior to, or after market introduction of alternative fuels. The findings from the country case studies in the AMF Task 59 project were clustered into five groups of implementation barriers: Technical issues/Infrastructure, Politics/Authorities, Costs/Economics, Consumers/Public, and Country Specific Barriers.

Importance of policies

Policies are a very important instrument for transitioning the future transport system. A constant political driver is necessary to overcome the peak of implementation barriers. Policy measures need to be strong, comprehensive, and developed with a long-term perspective.

Main Conclusions

Consistent policy and integration of all stakeholders are both necessary to overcome the peak of different implementation barriers for a successful market implementation of alternative fuels and propulsion systems.


Project Duration

April 2019 - December 2020


   Task Sharing

   Cost Sharing


Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden, USA


Total Budget

€ 140.000 (~ USD 156.500)

Task Manager

BEST - Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies GmbH
Andrea Sonnleitner