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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Heavy Duty Vehicle Evaluation

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose and objective of this project is to demonstrate and predict the progress in energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles, thus generating information to be used by transport companies, those procuring transport services and those forming transport policy. The project will encompass newest diesel technologies on different markets, but also alternative fuelled vehicles and advanced powertrain configurations. On average, trucks account for some 25 % of energy use and CO2 emissions in road transport. Heavy-duty trucks are one of the most challenging segments to electrify due to the operational range and restrictions in both length and weight. CO2 emissions have to be brought down by improvements in energy efficiency and the use of low-carbon fuels. The European Union has set an indicative target of 30 % reduction of CO2 emissions from HD vehicles by 2030 compared to level of 2019. Many other regions in the world have similar fuel efficiency targets for HD vehicles. This project will form a basis for the understanding the performance of best available diesel and alternative fuelled vehicles, and to estimate development towards 2030.   

The methodology to be used comprises laboratory and on-the road testing as well as simulation of energy consumption of various types of HD vehicles. The participating laboratories will use common test protocols for actual vehicle testing, to ensure comparability of the results. In the actual testing, both energy consumption and tailpipe emissions will be measured. Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions will be evaluated on a well-to-wheel basis.

This study can be seen as a continuation to the series of activities comparing various powertrain and fuel options for heavy-duty vehicles, i.e., Annexes 37, 38, 39, and 49. The new Annex will thus add to the total knowledge regarding performance of various powertrain and fuel options, generating what is unique for AMF, new first-line performance data. Annex 49 “COMVEC” conducted testing with Euro III to Euro VI certified vehicles, and forms an excellent reference to fall back on.

An additional objective of this study is to enhance cooperation within IEA TCPs. Hence, the AMF and Combustion TCPs have agreed to share data and information within this Annex. The AMF TCP is focused on state-of-the-art technology available on the market or close-to-the market, whereas the Combustion TCP is focusing on more basic research on future internal combustion engine (ICE) concepts and their performance (emissions and energy consumption with various fuel options). The Combustion TCP would benefit from actual time-resolved data from vehicle testing, in order to identify conditions where they should focus their research efforts. In return, the Combustion TCP can provide information to the AMF TCP regarding potential for further emissions and energy consumption improvement using fuels and technologies that are still not ready for commercialization. The main goals of the joint information sharing is thus to speed the development of new combustion technologies under the Combustion TCP, while assisting the AMF TCP in informing various stakeholders, including government policy makers, regarding the future potential of new heavy-duty transportation technologies.

The proposed overall activity will thus cover three time dimensions:

  • legacy vehicles and a reference backwards through completed AMF Annexes
  • a current snapshot of the performance of the current best-available-technology HD vehicles using conventional and alternative fuels (focal point of this activity)
  • a projection into the future of how energy efficiency and emissions can develop (this projection will rely on input from Combustion TCP as well as modelling by the AMF TCP for estimating the effects of alternative vehicle and powertrain configurations)












The modus operandi of the project is equivalent to the one used in Annex 49 “COMVEC”. This means several laboratories adding to a common pool of test data by running tests according to jointly defined test programs and test protocols. Additionally, simulation results will be shared. The importance of simulation is accentuated by the fact that current and oncoming CO2 regulations for HD are basically based on simulation.

The focus is on energy and efficiency and CO2 emissions. However, as the emission performance (regarding regulated emissions) is highly dependent of the functioning of the total exhaust after-treatment system, it is of interest to monitor regulated emissions as well. This will be done to verify baseline performance, but also to detect possible deterioration in emission performance and discrepancy between laboratory and real-life testing.   

At least one common test cycle shall be used for all vehicle categories at chassis dynamometer measurements and one for on-road testing. The project consist of nine work packages:

  • WP 0: Collection and consolidation of the existing data
  • WP 1: Agreement on common test procedures and protocols
  • WP 2: Vehicle chassis dynamometer testing
    • Contemporary diesel vehicles as well as alternative fuel and vehicle technologies in different vehicle categories
    • Parameters to be varied in chassis dynamometer: fuel composition, driving cycle, payload (50 and 100 %)
  • WP 3: Vehicle on-road testing with PEMS
    • Contemporary diesel vehicles as well as alternative fuel and vehicle technologies in different vehicle categories
    • Parameters to be varied on-road: fuel composition, driving cycle, payload (50 and 100 %), ambient conditions (summer and winter)
  • WP 4: Vehicle on-road emissions and fuel consumption monitoring
    • Contemporary diesel vehicles as well as alternative fuel and vehicle technologies in different vehicle categories
    • Operation in real driving and ambient conditions
    • NOx concentration and fuel consumption variation during long monitoring period
  • WP 5: HD vehicle simulation
    • Assessment of current and proposed simulation methods for CO2 assessment
    • Model that accounts different fuel options for fuel consumption evaluation
    • Parameters to be varied in Case studies: fuel, chassis structure, vehicle overall mass
  • WP 6: Regional information on transportation sectors energy options (originally a WP in COMVEC but still valid)
    • Information from project participants on regional challenges and opportunities that drives the development of energy options in transportation sectors and affects to the available fuel selection. This regional information will also shed light on various alternative technology options potential in different regions.
  • WP 7: Analysis and comparison of chassis dynamometer, on-road testing and simulation
    • Recommendation for improving test methods and modelling
  • WP 8: Cooperation with Combustion TCP
    • Data and information exchange considering on-road emissions and energy consumption
    • Information and data exchange considering future internal combustion engine concepts (fuels and technology) and their emissions and energy consumption
    • AMF to deliver time-resolved vehicle data to Combustion
    • Combustion to assist in making projections on future improvements in ICE technology
  • WP 9: Co-ordination of the project, synthesis and reporting
    • Administrative co-ordination, communication with the IEA AMF ExCo, synthesis of the data, compilation of the Final Report and dissemination of the results

Expected Results / Deliverables

The general outcome will be IEA sanctioned, unbiased data on the performance (energy use and emissions) of best current and new technologies. This type of information is needed for decision makers at all levels. The goal of this project is to fill out the blank spots for commercial vehicles by applying the systematic approach used in the evaluation of technology alternatives in Annexes 37 and 49. The project will produce a written Final Report, which includes:

  • Data and evaluations of the performance of current heavy-duty vehicles running on conventional and alternative fuels, relative to legacy vehicles. In addition, projections on how energy efficiency and exhaust emissions of HD vehicles might evolve in the future, and what actions might be needed to enhance performance
  • Test data from chassis dynamometers as well as on-road testing, regulated emissions, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency, CO2 and energy efficiency to be assessed also on a well-to-wheel basis
  • Cooperation with the Combustion TCP for ICE technology performance projections into the future
  • Progress in emissions and energy consumption compared to Annex 49 “COMVEC” which provided information at the time on recently introduced Euro VI HD vehicles
  • Information on possibilities that alternative vehicle configurations (e.g., high capacity transport HCT) could provide with regard to emissions and energy consumption
  • Effects of vehicle aging on emissions over a longer monitoring period. SCR systems are sensitive for impurities migrated within exhaust gas and fluctuation of ambient temperature
  • Overall outcome: Current performance of HD vehicles on laboratory and on-road and future pathways (fuels and technology) for ICE powered vehicles to achieve ever more stringent climate and air quality targets


Project Duration

October 2018 - October 2020


   Task Sharing

   Cost Sharing


Canada, Finland, Korea, Sweden

On voluntary basis

Total Budget

~€ 510,000 ($ 564,000 US)

Operating Agent

Petri Söderena

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Email: petri.soderena@vtt.fi