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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Sustainable Bus Systems - Phase 2


Developing regions still depends on bus system for mobility in urban areas. Conventional soot free and clean bus technologies are mature since the adoption of Euro VI – EPA2010 standards in developed regions but promising technologies for energy efficiency and CO2 reduction are coming to the market including hybrid and battery electric power train together with advanced renewable fuels. The reduction of GHG from the increasing stock of vehicle in developing regions is the key global challenge in climate change and transport during the coming decades. A robust clean and energy efficient public transport system including buses, is the answer for future sustainable transport in urban areas in developing regions. Carefully introduction of Euro VI conventional buses and progressive deployment of more advanced technologies can produce substantial PM and NOx emission reduction and reduce GHG emission in the path request by 2 ͦ Celsius IEA´s scenario.

Euro VI requires more advanced testing and certification procedures and in some cases the substitution of old engines production lines with state of the art diesel engines and emission control systems. The creation of capacities for compliance of emission standards including production and in use control is key for a successful introduction of clean diesel buses in developing regions. Decision about Euro VI for HDV in China and India, and Euro Vi for buses in Chile, Mexico among other countries are pushing the adoption of this technology globally, but still there are important delays in regions like Latin America, Eastern Europe, South Asia and Africa.

The deployment of advance bus technologies is highly challenging in developing urban areas, considering the complexity of public transport systems in many big and megacities, including heavy use of vehicles, poor maintenance practices, poor road and electric infrastructure and in some cases energy generation based on fossil fuels. Restrictions in investment and operation are also important, considering the less availability for subsidies for public transport in comparison with developed countries. The availability or potential for use of different alternative fuels is something to consider in the identification of most suitable clean and energy efficient bus system option for different countries and regions.

First phase of Annex 53 had the objective of methodology for setting requirements for clean and energy efficient busses for use in tendering process for public transport operators in developing regions including guidance and recommendations to control and follow up the buses in operation. The requirements shall be adopted to local conditions and verify the effects in real driving conditions in developing cities. The capital city of Chile, Santiago, was the target for this first phase. The Annex produce several outputs useful for this city, including a Santiago´s bus driving cycle, a test program of different bus technologies tested under Santiago cycle in HDV laboratories in Europe and South America, three virtual buses in Autonomie model used for simulation of different diesel and battery electric buses and a set of recommendations for use of this procedures, methods and information in the tendering process for 2,000 buses in Santiago.

First phase provides solid bases for the expansion of this experience to other cities, creating better conditions for the deployment of more advanced bus technologies. Colombia and Brazil are starting process like Santiago to turn over the bus fleet in the coming years for Medellin and Sao Paulo cities.

Another initiatives in progress, like Soot Free Bus Program at Climate and Clean Air Coalition and Hybrid and Electric Vehicles IEA´s Technology Collaboration Program. ICCT will be invited to collaborate considering their activities on clean buses project in Colombia and Brazil.

Purpose and Objectives

Main objective is the development of a platform of information, tools and training that facilitate the successful deployment of advanced bus technologies in cities of developing countries during next decade. Bus technologies considered are battery electric, hybrid electric, fuel cells and second generation of biofuels. Euro VI diesel and CNG will be also considered, especially in terms of the development of compliance and enforcement capacities in developing countries.


  • WP 0.  Collection of data of bus system in three targeted cities
  • WP 1. Description of advanced bus technologies expected to be available during next decade.
  • WP 2. Analysis of existing test cycles versus local operation conditions in developing cities.
  • WP 3. Development of a common test methodology and protocols for reporting of data.
  • WP 4. Selection of bus technologies (Euro III and later) and fuels to considered for the test.
  • WP 5. Execution of tests according to developed methodology on vehicles and fuels selected.
  • WP 6. Bus performance modelling under different test conditions.
  • WP 7. Analysis of data from both the own measurements and the collated existing data.
  • WP 8. Development guidelines for busses in sustainable bus transport system, including certification, tendering and periodic inspection.
  • WP 9. Work exchange of researchers between Europe and South-America
  • WP 10. Co-ordination of the project, synthesis and reporting

Expected Results

  • Collecting comparable data on the performance of conventional and advanced technologies, with a focus on conditions typical for developing countries
  • A system to provide information to Public Transport Authorities in developing countries to choose improved technology for the new bus fleets to be put in service.
  • A methodology to “translate” local cycles to “global” cycles (comparison of the locally/regionally developed driving cycles with the existing global ones)
  • Recommendations to consider when evaluation verifiable clean and energy efficient busses in public transport system - everything adopted to local/regional conditions.
  • A vehicle modelling capacity in 3CV and CMMCh for future evaluation of bus performance in other Latin-American cities.