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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Advanced Motor Fuels in Chile

 

Drivers and Policies

In Chile, the transportation sector is responsible for 35% of the country’s energy consumption. Of this percentage, oil derivatives account for 98% of usage (National Balance of Energy 2016), making them responsible for about 20% of the total emissions of greenhouse gases in Chile. In addition, the consumption of oil derivatives in urban areas causes pollution. As a result, public policies are needed that focus on the efficient use of energy in the transportation sector. These policies should aim to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) gases and pollutants emitted in the environment, while also decreasing Chile’s dependence on imported fuels and the nation’s associated vulnerability.

Since 2015, a collaboration framework agreement has been in force between the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications (MTT). The objective of this framework is to advance regulations, policies, and programs aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the country’s vehicle fleet.

An example of MTT and energy efficiency is the public transport system in Santiago. The main objectives are to have an efficient, safe, and high-quality transport system. At present, the system is in the bid stage of evaluation. The MTT has prepared a bidding process for the concession of the use of roads for four of the seven current business units. The business units to be bid represent 47% of the total of the system and cover 2,855 of currently operating buses.

The most relevant topics are the technology requirements and bus emissions. Interested operators of transport services must have a number of buses that comply with local regulations. Regarding pollutant emissions, companies are required to meet standard Euro VI or EPA2010. Furthermore, each winning company must have at least 15 electric buses and 15 buses with special attributes for each business unit, meaning that vehicles incorporate additional conditions over the minimum required. Examples include having a low floor and air-conditioning and having emission technology that exceeds the standards required by current regulations.

New Vehicle Energy Efficiency Regulation

Chile was the first Latin American country – as of February 2013 – to implement compulsory labeling of vehicular energy efficiency. Such labeling allows buyers of new light vehicles, either diesel or gasoline, to

compare their energy performance (www.consumovehicular.cl). In June 2017, vehicle energy-efficiency labeling was expanded to include mid-sized vehicles (light trucks and vans) and hybrid and electric vehicles. Figure 1 shows examples of labels for various types of vehicles. In addition, since labeling was implemented, dealers are obligated to include city fuel consumption in written advertising, which applies to magazines, newspapers, and other printed materials.

 

Fig. 1    Examples of Labels for Diesel Vehicles, Hybrid Vehicles, and Electric Vehicles

Project of Law – Energy Efficiency

This project was already admitted in the congress and is currently under analysis in the Chamber of Deputies. The main objective in the transportation sector is to improve the energy efficiency of Chile’s vehicle fleet. The Ministry of Energy, together with the University of Chile, through an agreement with the university’s Energy Center, developed a proposal of energy-efficiency standards for light vehicles, simulating different scenarios, based on all the units sold (brands and models) in 2015. This proposal is available for incorporation in the short term as a regulation, once the Energy Efficiency Law is approved. In addition, Chile is collecting data from mid-sized vehicles (i.e., vans, light trucks) to make a mid-term request proposal. Eventually, a long-term standard or regulation for heavy vehicles will also be planned. Figure 2 shows sales of light vehicles in 2015.

Fig. 2    Sales of Light Vehicles in Chile in 2015 (km/L of gasoline equivalent using weight as a descriptor)

Source: University of Chile.

 

Research and Demonstration Focus

Energy-Efficient Buses in Santiago

As a result of the collaboration agreement with MTT, Chile has made progress in creating a methodology to measure the energy efficiency of public transport buses. The Vehicle Control and Certification Center (3 CV) developed the “TS-STGO” driving cycle of Transantiago (i.e., public transport system of Santiago), with the support of the Chile Mario Molina Center, Ministry of Energy, and the VTT Finland Laboratory. The DRIVING CYCLE TS-STGO has a total distance of 9.98 km, a duration of 1,827 s, an average speed of 19.66 km/h and takes into consideration gradient and maximum speed.

Because Chile can already measure the energy efficiency of urban public transport buses in Santiago, the future challenge is to ensure that all new models added to the Transantiago fleet are measured in terms of energy efficiency. In the medium term, regulations are being developed to define minimum energy-efficiency standards for all buses entering the Santiago bus fleet.

Buses from Other Cities – Urban and Interurban

Through an agreement between MTT and the Ministry of Energy, and through the 3 CV Heavy Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, the energy efficiency of the most representative buses used in the most important cities of the country (like Santiago) will be measured. The challenges are to have an energy-efficiency comparison platform for buses in the regions. For this, an agreement of transfer of resources with the Institute of Complex Systems of Engineering belonging to the University of Chile is in force. They are creating a database and developing the necessary tools to reach this target.

Efficient Driving Program for the Public Sector

Efficient driving involves the type of driving and attitude that allows attaining higher fuel efficiency, emitting less CO2 during travel, and prolonging the life of the vehicles. The Efficient Driver Training Program for drivers in the public sector was initiated in 2014. This program is a cost-effective program with economies of scale. The valued savings achieved per year by the implementation of this program exceed their annual costs. Since the program’s inception 4 years ago, more than 1,300 professionals have been trained (from 20 ministries).

 

Outlook

Metropolitan Region – Santiago, December 2017: the Government of Chile Launches the National Strategy of Electro-mobility

Electric vehicles are expected to be the international standard by 2030. Electric vehicles can be up to four times more efficient than conventional ones. In addition, they produce less noise, require less maintenance, and emit fewer pollutants. On the basis of electricity generation and distribution network, an electric vehicle in Chile would emit around one-third of the CO2 emissions of a conventional vehicle. In addition, they use three times more copper than conventional vehicles, and it is expected that by 2025, around 40% of the world’s lithium production will go to electric vehicles. Chile is the largest copper producer in the world, with 34% of world production, and the second country in the world in lithium production.

The Ministry of Energy, together with MTT and the Ministry of the Environment, developed the National Electromobility Strategy. According to this strategy, by the year 2050, 100% of the national urban public transport fleet will be electric, as well as 40% of the private vehicle fleet. In addition, the strategy incorporates strategic axes and lines of work and is established with specific deadlines to develop the necessary environment to promote this technology. Five strategic axes and 20 lines of action are identified. The five strategic axes are listed below:

  • Adopt regulation and standards,
  • Promote the penetration of electric vehicles in public transport,
  • Support research and development and strengthen human capital,
  • Continue to develop electro-mobility, and
  • Transfer knowledge and disseminate information.

Only considering the target for the year 2050 of light vehicles, it is estimated that the entry of electric vehicles would avoid the emission of 11 million tons of CO2 per year and reduce the country’s energy expenditure by more than $3,300 million US per year, which is equivalent to 1.5% of the PIB 2016 (https://www.datosmacro.com/pib/espana).

 

Additional Information Sources

 

Benefits of Participation in the AMF

TCP Chile’s participation in the AMF TCP facilitates work on energy-efficiency projects in the country’s transport sector by providing international support. Knowledge of the different programs of the various partner countries enables the implementation of best practices. The exchange of information with international experts from the various emissions laboratories and research centers is an invaluable experience.