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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Annex 54: GDI Engines and Alcohol Fuels

Purpose and Objectives

The objective of this Annex is to determine the impacts of alcohol fuels on emissions from GDI engines. Along with gaseous emissions the focus will be on the tailpipe emissions of particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC), along with the Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation potential. The fuels investigated include ethanol blends: E10 and E85, and methanol blends M56, M15 and M30). In addition, an investigation of the impacts of gasoline particulate filters on particles from GDI engines with varying fuels will be undertaken.


The main activities of this Annex are chassis dynamometer tests of vehicles with GDI engines and comparable counterpart engines. These vehicles will be chassis dynamometer tested over varying driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The vehicles will also be tested with fuels of varying alcohol content (e.g., ethanol and methanol) to assess the impact of alcohol fuels on the emissions from GDI engines. As well, some vehicles will be equipped with gasoline particulate filters in order to determine the efficiency of GPF on emissions reduction from GDI engines.

The focus of this project is to obtain detailed information about particulate and particle emissions from GDI technologies, along with gaseous emissions, fuel economy and efficiency will also be quantified.

The impact of alcohol fuels and GPF on particulate matter, particle number and black carbon emission rates will be measured. Also, the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of different vehicle fuel and technology combinations will be assessed.

Canada Task Sharing Contribution

Experiments will be carried out at the Emissions Research and Measurement Section of Environment and Climate Change Canada. A light duty GDI vehicle will be tested on a chassis dynamometer with both low level ethanol and high level ethanol blends. The drive cycle used will be the FTP with cold start at 25°C, -7°C and -18°C. The US06 cycle will also be conducted at 25°C. Additional tests will be conducted with the GDI vehicle equipped with a GPF.

Along with fuel economy and criteria air contaminants, detailed characterization of particulate matter and particle emissions will be undertaken. This characterization will include gravimetric PM, Organic and Elemental Carbon, particle number per mile and particle size distribution.

Chile Task Share Contribution

Chile’s contribution will be led by the Centro Mario Molin (CMMCh). Experiments will be carried out at the 3CV laboratory and photochemical chamber at the Ministry for Transport and Telecommunication (3CV-MTT). Chassis dynamometer tests will be conducted with light duty vehicles using the NEDC and FTP test cycle, with varying blends of ethanol fuel (E0, E10, E85). Additionally, one vehicle will be equipped with a GPF and tested with and without GPF. Along with measurements of NOx and NMHC, particle chemical composition and particle number size distribution will be quantified for UV irradiation aged emissions. Determinations of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation Potential for each vehicle fuel combination will be made. A light duty diesel vehicle will also be tested for comparative purposes.

Israel Task Share Contribution

Emissions tests will be conducted with GDI vehicles fueled with methanol gasoline and ethanol gasoline fuel mixtures (M56, E85, M15, E10 and M30). Emission testing would be performed according to NEDC and US06 cycles. Emissions characterization would include: NOx, HC, CO, PM, PN, and Formaldehyde. The test vehicles will include both GDI and PFI engines.

US Task Share Contribution

This contribution will be provided by the Argonne National Laboratory – Center for Transportation Research, Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. Tasks will include chassis dynamometer tests of two vehicles of the same model types; one vehicle with a GDI engine powertrain with GPF and one vehicle with a GDI engine powertrain without GPF. The test protocol will include an FTP with cold start and the NEDC with hot start at 22°C (72°F) ambient temperature. Detailed characterization of the PM will include transient soot mass, particle size distributions, primary total solid particle number and emissions of heavy hydrocarbons known to have high secondary organic aerosol potential.

Project Duration  April 2016 - April 2019
Task Sharing  
Cost Sharing Canada, Chile, Israel, USA
Total Budget  

Operating Agent

Ms. Debbie Rosenblatt
Environment Canada
335 River Road, K1A OH3 Ottawa, Ontario
phone: +1 613-949-0989
email: Debbie.Rosenblatt@Canada.ca