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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Annex 50: Fuel and Technology Alternatives in Non-Road Engines

Non-road mobile machinery is essential in the production of food, feed, infrastructure, industrial material and even advanced motor fuels. Non-road mobile machinery includes machinery like agricultural and forestry tractors, combined harvesters, wheel loaders, excavators, mining trucks and other construction equipment including gensets and road vehicle like machinery.

This project will focus on tractors and construction equipment. It will provide the current status of engine technologies in use, evaluate representative operational conditions and load patterns, and assess the effects of fuel and alternative technologies on emissions and fuel efficiency.

Purpose and Objectives
Non-road mobile machinery is used for the production of food, feed, and industrial material. The sector is responsible for between 10 and 25 % of national diesel consumption, and contributes significantly to overall emissions. However, any discussion regarding alternative fuels and GHG emissions has been focused on road vehicles, both within IEA AMF and in general. For additional background information please see the document “introduction Annex 50 non-road”.
AMF has reviewed fuel effects of non-road mobile machinery for over 10 years (e.g. Annex 25). Since then technology and emission performance have changed substantially. The focus of the proposed Annex shall be on agricultural machinery (tractors) and construction equipment (road vehicle like machinery, excavators, wheel loaders etc).
The purpose and objective of this Annex is to evaluate the fuel efficiency and emission performance of different engine technologies, fuel specifications and machinery applications including engine load cycles. A second objective is to develop emission factors for inventories of non-road mobile machinery in the participating countries and investigate potential spill-over from road vehicle technology. Assessment of retrofit of the legacy fleet on fuel efficiency and emissions is a third objective.


  • WP 1:    Comparison between non-road and on-road emission legislation
    • Type approval legislation
    • Retrofit Emission Control devices
  • WP 2:    Availability/applicability of alternative technology
    • Alternative fuels, hybridization, electrification, fuel cell technology
    • Evaluation of spill-over from on-road vehicle technology
    • Requirements on energy density, range, safety, etc
  • WP 3:    Collection of existing data of number of machinery, working hour, engine power, etc for fuel consumption and emission inventories
    • Comparison of non-road mobile machinery fuel consumption and emissions with on-road sources
  • WP 4:    Regional/National information on non-road mobile machinery policy options
    • Renewal of machinery
    • Repower
    • Retrofit schemes
    • Re-fuel
    • Existing and planned measures for promotion of alternative fuels and/or technologies
  • WP 5:    Identification of machinery of interest for WP 7 based on the outcome of WP 2, WP 3, WP 4 and other national inputs
    • Investigate possible synergies between participating parties within the Annex
    • WP 6:    Development of common test procedures and protocols
    • Measurement equipment
    • Operating condition including load cycles
    • Emissions and fuel consumption (HC, CO, NOx, NO, FC, PM/PN)
  • WP 7:    Machinery testing
    • PEMS testing of complete machinery or chassis dynamometer testing of road vehicle like machinery or engine dynamometer testing of stand-alone engines
    • Parameters to be tested
      • Emission stages
      • Drop-in fuels
      • Retrofit of exhaust gas emissions control devices
      • Engine technologies
      • Hybridization
      • Alternative fuels
      • Engine operation
      • Cycles
      • Payload
      • Ambient conditions
  • WP 8:    Simulation of component and/or machinery in order to address fuel consumption
  • WP 9:    Reporting
Project Duration  May 2014 - June 2017
Task Sharing Finland, Canada, Germany, Sweden
Cost Sharing  
Total Budget >300,000 €

Operating Agent

Mr. Magnus Lindgren
Swedish Transport Administration (STA)
Senior advisor Vehicles and Fuel
Röda vägen 1
(781 89) Borlänge
phone:  +46 10 123 58 12
mobile: +46 70 361 50 26
email:  magnus.lindgren@trafikverket.se