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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Annex 22: Particulate Emissions at Moderate and Cold Temperatures Using Different Fuels

Final Report

Particle emissions at moderate and cold temperatures using different fuels


The Annex XXII was active from 2000 to 2003 as a task sponsored by the (IEA/AMF). The research work on particulate emissions of road traffic has been carried out at normal ambient temperature. Even a slight reduction in temperature can increase particulate emissions. For many years, it has been obvious that the knowledge of the total particulate mass emissions is not enough. Quality of these particles, like polyaromatic hydrocarbon content, has already been studied widely. Now there is also a need to gain more information on fine particles. Especially, the possible effect of temperature on particle size has not been studied much. This project was targeted to cover different fuel and engine technologies, including gaseous fuels and biodiesel. Research work focused on different light-duty technologies. However, preliminary tests were conducted with a medium-duty engine to evaluate the suitability of different measuring techniques at low test temperatures. Light-duty vehicles were as follows: two diesel cars (direct and indirect-injection), stoichiometric gasoline fuelled car (multi-portfuel-injection), direct-injection gasoline car, FFV car running with E85 fuel, CNG and LPG cars. Four fuels with diesel cars were studied: European grade diesel, Swedish Environmental Class 1 fuel and blends of these fuels and RME.

With medium-duty engine the effect of temperature on particles was clear and seen both in the particle mass and number results, which was assumed to be related to the condensed hydrocarbons. Generally, both particle mass and number emissions were high with diesel cars when compared to the other cars. Particle emission increased as test temperature decreased in the beginning of the test (cold start) with both diesel cars, but the effect of temperature diminished when engine warmed up. RME showed benefit concerning particle mass emissions, but indication of higher number of particles and peak at lower size class was seen when compared to EU2000 at -7 °C, but similar effect was not seen when RME was blended with the reformulated diesel fuel. Particle emissions were extremely low at +23 °C with MPI, E85, CNG and LPG cars, but significantly higher with the G-DI car. Particle mass and number emission from MPI, E85, LPG and G-DI cars after cold start increased to some extent as temperature decreased. The particle mass and number emissions from the CNG car stayed at the “zero” level at all temperatures studied. Typically, if the effect of temperature on particle results was seen, it occurred after the cold start and diminished as engine, catalyst and/or EGR system warmed-up.


  • Canada
  • Finland
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Sweden
  • USA

Operating Agent

Päivi Aakko
VTT Processes, Finland