Advanced Motor Fuels in France
French fuel consumption for use in road transportation increased continuously up to the very beginning of the past decade as a result of the increasing number of vehicles and road traffic (Figure 1). After a period of stabilization, a slight decline could be observed starting in 2011. This decline can be attributed to the economic situation, the improvement in engine efficiency and the consequent reduction in unitary consumption, and the dieselization of the fleet. In 2015, fuel consumption in road transportation registered a 0.9% increase (excluding biofuels). Oil products (gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] fuel) are still predominant, while biofuels reached 6% of the mix in 2014. The share of diesel in fuel consumption increased continuously between 1970 and 2014, rising from 28% to 83% (81.2% in 2015 according to Union Française des Industries Pétrolières [UFIP]). The SP95-E10, marketed since 2009 and which could contain up to 10% ethanol, represented more than 30% of the sales of premium fuels (unleaded 95 and 98, and SP95-E10) in 2014.
Fig. 1 Evolution of Fuels Sales for Road Transportation (including biofuels). (1 = gasoline, unleaded, unleaded 98, unleaded 95, SP95-E10, including biofuels; 2 = including biofuels). (Source: Chiffres clés de l’énergie, 2016, 2015 Edition, Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, February)
In 2014, biofuels consumption for use in road transportation amounted to 2,955 kilotonnes of oil equivalent (Ktoe) (Figure 2). Biodiesel represents about 86% of this volume, compared to 14% for bioethanol. Between 2013 and 2014, biofuels consumption increased by about 268 Ktoe, that is, +10% (biodiesel consumption rose 10.8%, compared to 5.2% for bioethanol).
Fig. 2 Biofuels Consumption in France in 2014 — 2,955 Ktoe. (Source: Chiffres clés des énergies renouvelables, 2015, Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, December)
The economic crisis has been affecting new vehicle registrations continuously since 2009. Almost all kinds of vehicles are impacted, and more particularly the heavy and light commercial vehicles. Registrations of small gasoline vehicles are progressing, while those of diesel cars are declining. The share of electric and hybrid cars has increased significantly since 2012 as a result of the environmental bonus. It was around 3% in 2014, while less than 1% in 2011.
Policies and Legislation
Incentives To Promote the Use of Renewable Energy in Transport
Under the National Action Plan for Renewable Energy, following the
Grenelle de l'Environnement, a number of incentives were introduced to promote the use of energy from renewable resources in the transport sector.
Initiatives To Use Biofuel Blends Policies and Lesislation
- On April 1, 2009, the launch of new SP95-E10 in the gasoline sector corresponded to an incorporation rate of 10% ethanol in gasoline (between 7% and 8% ethanol composition, effectively). This product has been approved for sale in petrol stations since 2009. It aims to replace the SP95 (5% bioethanol), in accordance with European directives. In 2015, the SP95‑10 accounted for a 45% share of the gasoline volume sold — a 13% increase compared to 2014 (32%). Since 2012, sales of SP95-E10 have exceeded those of SP98. France is the European country that has the largest number of petrol stations distributing SP95-E10 (available in around 57% of the total distributing network). In 2015, more than 90% of the French fleet was compatible with SP95-E10, as well as almost all petrol vehicles registered since 2000.
- Fuels with high levels of biofuel were authorized for use, including E85 in the gasoline sector and B30 in diesel fuel production. In the first quarter of 2015, superethanol E85, which contains 65%–85% bioethanol, registered a 7% growth in sales over those in the first quarter of 2014. As of October 2015, E85 has been sold in more than 700 petrol stations. To encourage the development of E85, it is subsidized and, accordingly benefits from reduced pump prices (€0.73/L in September 2015). The E85 price savings, compared to SP95, reached 20 to 40 cents/L (over-consumption effect is included).
Since 2013, many manufacturers have suspended marketing flex-fuel vehicles. As a consequence of the tightening of European standards, few models are now available for sale. In 2015, Volkswagen added a flex-fuel motor on three models. In 2012, the number of sales of flex-fuel vehicles had reached 7,341. They accounted for no more than 129 vehicle registrations in 2015, or 0.01% of all new vehicle sales.
With regard to B30 (gas oil that is not authorized for sale to the public), the Senate adopted two amendments in November 2014 that aim to apply a taxation scheme to B30 that is adapted to its low environmental impact, as is done for superethanol E85.
Fiscal Incentive Schemes
- A tax exemption is being granted to biofuels. It complies with European Directive 2003/96/EC on the taxation of energy, which allows Member States to have a special tax for biofuels to ensure their development and promotion.
- A general tax on polluting activities (Taxe Générale sur les Activités Polluantes, or TGAP) was levied to enable France to reach national objectives with regard to using biofuels. TGAP is an additional levy that must be paid by the operators and distributors (refiners, supermarkets, and independent dealers) that sell fuel containing a lower proportion of biofuels than the proportions represented by national goals. This rate increased from 1.75% in 2006 to 6.25% in 2009. The objective since 2010 of incorporating biofuels fixed at 7% was almost reached in 2013 (6.8%). The 2014 Finance Act established an incorporation target of 7.7% biodiesel in diesel. A decree in December 2014 authorized the incorporation of 8% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in diesel. For gasoline, the rate is maintained at 7%. To promote the second-generation biofuels industry, TGAP is double-counted. This incentive was designed to encourage the development of the production of biofuels that would not compete with farming for the production of food. Since 2014, the amount of biofuels that benefitted from this advantage was limited to 0.35% for incorporation in diesel and 0.25% for incorporation in gasoline. These limits were introduced to limit biofuel production from imported waste, which was observed in 2011.
- The domestic tax on consumption (Taxe Intérieure sur la Consommation, or TIC) aims to reduce the extra cost of manufacturing biofuels over the cost of manufacturing fossil fuels. This is a partial tax exemption for biodiesel and bioethanol and a total exemption for pure vegetable oil used as fuel for agriculture and fishing industries. After a gradual decrease, the tax exemption rates were stabilized from 2011 to 2013. The 2014 Finance Act (“Loi de Finances”) proposes a further reduction of the tax exemption for 2014 and 2015 until its abolition in 2016. The biodiesel sector benefitted from a €3/hectoliter (hL) reduction in 2015, compared to €4.5/hL in 2014. The bioethanol sector tax exemption was €7/hL in 2015, compared to €8.25/hL in 2014. Taxation applied to superethanol E85 was maintained at a rate of €17.29/hL from 2011 to 2014. The energy product consumption tax (Taxe Intérieure de Consommation sur les Produits Énergétiques, or TICPE) was decreased to €12.62/hL in 2015. This device was stopped in December 2015.
The Climate Energy Contribution (CEC) came into force on April 1, 2014. It introduced a carbon component within the TICPE that was progressive and proportionate to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy products under the TICPE, according to the value for a ton of CO2 being fixed at €7 in 2014, €14.5 in 2015, and €22 in 2016.
Measures To Encourage Fleet Renewal
- The bonus-malus system that applied to the purchase of a new vehicle and which had been amended in November 2013, evolved again on January 1, 2015, for the bonus calculation scale, whereas the malus calculation scale established on January 1, 2014, remained unchanged for 2015. The bonus amount was revised downward, with the maximum CO2 release being set at 60 grams/kilometer (g/km) (it had been set at 90 g/km previously). The maximum bonus of €6,300 introduced in 2013 has remained the same. The €150 bonus for the purchase of thermal vehicles (from 61 to 90 g CO2/km) was removed.
For a vehicle emitting more than 130 g CO2/km, the ecological malus generates an increase in the purchase price of €150 up to €8,000. The objective of the bonus-malus system is to start the ecological transition by using measures that encourage individuals to acquire low-emission vehicles and consequently renew the old automotive fleet. The bonus-malus system from 2008 to 2015 (hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs] and electric vehicles [EVs] excluded) is shown in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows the bonus-malus for HEVs and EVs.
The bonus-malus system was revised downward again on January 1, 2016. The hybrid vehicles will be the most impacted category. The aid for the purchase of a hybrid vehicle will decrease from €2,000 in 2015 to €750 in 2016. As for the plug-in vehicles, the decrease is more important; the aid applied decreasing to €1,000 (€4,000 in 2015).
Environmental Bonus for Hybrid Vehicles
The aid applies only to hybrid vehicles with CO2 emissions below 110 g/km. The hybrid vehicles segment was very much impacted by the new device in 2015. The amount of aid being allocated was only 5% (8.25% in 2014) of the vehicle price, with the minimum amount being €1,000 (€1,650 in 2014) and the maximum being €2,000 (€3,300 in 2014). The aid applied for the purchase of an HEV will decrease to €750 on January 1, 2016 (see Table 1).
Fig. 3 Bonus-Malus System from 2008 to 2015 (excluding HEVs and EVs)
With regard to plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), the bonus is capped at 20% of the purchase cost, plus the cost of the battery if it is rented. The aid applied is €4,000 as a maximum for a vehicle emitting less than 60g CO2/km. The bonus applied on January 1, 2016, will decrease to €1,000.
Support for Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicles are eligible for the highest environmental bonus levels (Table 2). The bonus granted for purchasing an EV that emits less than 20g CO2/km fell from €7,000 in 2013 to €6,300 in 2014 and 2015, and will be the same for 2016. The aid applied may not exceed 27% of the purchase price, including all taxes plus the cost of the battery if the vehicle is rented.
Fig. 4 Bonus-Malus System from 2008 to 2015 for HEVs and EVs
Table 1 Environmental Bonuses for HEVs
Less than 110
Maximum financial aid of 5% of the acquisition cost plus the cost of the battery if it is rented.
Toyota Yaris HSD,
Table 2 Environmental Bonuses for EVs
Bonus in 2013
Bonus in 2014
Bonus in 2015
Less than 20
Bonus is capped at 27% of the purchase price, plus the cost of the battery if it is rented.
Renault ZOE, Nissan LEAF
The Super Bonus
Initially introduced in October 2014 as part of the Law on “Transition Energétique,” the super bonus was revised on April 1, 2015. This cumulative premium, together with the automotive bonus device, could add up to:
- €500 for the purchase of a vehicle that meets the Euro 6,
- €2,500 for a PHEV, and
- €3,700 for EVs.
This super bonus will be set for the purchase of one out of those three types of vehicles and the scrapping of a diesel vehicle in service before January 1, 2001. For the purchase of an EV, the device will, under certain conditions, allow the amount to reach €10,000.
Since its introduction in 2008, the bonus-malus automotive device was originally designed to be in balance: revenues issued from the bonus-malus system were to balance expenses associated with the bonus system. However, this device showed a deficit from 2008 to 2013. It is subject to adjustment annually in order to account for technological developments and to ensure that the budget is balanced. In 2014, the bonus-malus device recorded a surplus of €141 million.
In 2015, the amount of aid for the purchase of a clean vehicle was €242.15 million, of which €214.5 million was in bonuses and €28 million in conversion premiums.
The share of vehicles with bonuses accordingly fell from 8.8% in 2014 to 3.2% in 2015. The share of cars subject to malus decreased from 17.4% in 2014 to 13.6% in 2015. The neutral zone gained 9.4 points to 83.2%.
In 2016, the French Government plans an increase in loans of approximately 10% or €236 million for the bonuses and €30 million for the conversion premiums.
Research and Development (R&D) in the Transportation Sector
Public support for innovation and R&D deployed within competing clusters (i.e., associations or partnerships) results in the following:
- Financial support via the single interdepartmental fund (Fond Unique Interministériel, or FUI). It involves the participation of various partners such as (1) the National Research Agency (NRA, or in French, Agence Nationale de la Recherche, or ANR) through a Carnot device), (2) Oséo, which is now incorporated in La Banque Publique d’Investissement ou Bpifrance, or (3) Caisse des Dépôts in project financing; and
- Tax exemptions for companies with a cluster involved in an R&D project financed by the French Government.
NRA R&D Projects
The NRA, established in 2005, is responsible for implementing financing projects designed to boost the research sector, France’s competitiveness, and the visibility of France’s research abroad. The NRA is mobilized to focus its research efforts on economic and societal priorities at the highest level of the State and to consult with other stakeholders in the research results and develop European and international collaborations. Now the action of the NRA revolves around nine major societal challenges identified in the Strategic Research Agenda that are consistent with the European Strategic Agenda. Two of the challenges are related to transport issues: (1) clean, safe, and efficient energy and (2) sustainable mobility and urban systems.
None of the NRA projects launched in 2015 relate to thematics on biofuels, transport, or energy.
Projects launched in 2014 on these thematics (see details in IEA‑Advanced Motor Fuels Annual Report 2014) and which will be developed over the next 3 to 4 years, include the following:
- CATAPILS. This 3-year project deals with the catalytic conversion of lignin into biofuels and simple aromatic compounds by an innovative hybrid system composed of metallic nanoparticles stabilized by polymerized ionic liquids (PILs).
- Cellutanol. This 3-year project aims to build, within 4 years, an Escheria coli strain that will directly convert crystalline cellulose into butanol at a high yield and which will be able to be used to produce third-generation biofuel with a better octane rating than that of ethanol.
- DIGAS. This 4- and a half-year project aims to develop a heterogeneous catalytic process for the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from sustainable sources to use in several energy applications. The DIGAS project focuses on the direct, one-step synthesis of DME from biomass-derived syngas in two reactions.
- GreenAlgOhol. The goals of this 4-year project are to develop efficient biomass production schemes and optimized enzymatic hydrolysis of seaweed glucans to produce algal glucose.
- Four projects on Modeling, Forecasting, and Risk Evaluations. (FOREWER, HYSTOR, APPIBio, and European Combustion Network [ECN] – France)
Under the NRA umbrella, the Instituts pour la Transition Energétique (ITE) previously les Instituts d’Excellence en Matière d’Énergies Décarbonées, or, in English, the Institutes of Excellence in Low-Carbon Energies, or IEED) implemented interdisciplinary platforms in the field of low-carbon energy that bring together the expertise of industry and public research. Among these are the PIVERT and VeDeCoM projects (see details in IEA-Advanced Motor Fuels Annual Report 2014).
The central role of competitiveness clusters (Pôles de Compétitivité) — such as Mov'eo (automotive cars) and Lyon Urban Trucks & Transport (LUTB) (heavy trucks) — in the field of transportation should also be emphasized, since they represent an important tool in supporting that sector.
In 2015, only one project in the field of alternative fuel for transport had been pre-selected, and it is waiting only for final budget and contract negotiations — DirectSynBioFuel (Design des nanocomposites métal-zéolithe hiérachisés pour la synthèse directe des carburants à partir de biosyngas).
ADEME R&D Programs
ADEME (Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie), the French energy public agency, also hosts R&D programs and is the operator of some investment (Investissements d’Avenir or PIA) for future plans such as these:
- Bioresources, Industries, and Performance (BIP) Program. Projects must be enrolled under at least one of the two topics detailed in the text of the “call for projects”:
1. Biorefineries: (1) plant chemistry, (2) bio-based products for chemicals and materials, and (3) biofuels
2. Renewable and clean energy from biomass
- Road Vehicle of the Future Program (inside PIA). With €1.04 billion, the PIA’s “Vehicle and Transport of the Future” program promotes the development of innovative technologies for mobility: EVs and charging infrastructure, thermal and hybrid engines, reduction of heavy vehicles, mobility and logistics, rail, and efficient ships. Projects cover (1) technology and (2) systems and mobility. Possible levers include alternative energy and auxiliary functions (including safety, comfort, and energy management).
Some examples in the areas of advanced biofuels and the development of EVs and PHEVs are discussed below.
ADEME Advanced Biofuels Programs
In France, the challenges to developing biofuels industrial sectors are considerable and include (1) reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transport sector, (2) limiting the country’s energy dependence, and (3) creating new economic activities.
Projects in France that aim to remove a number of scientific and technical bottlenecks in the advanced biofuels sector are summarized here (see details in IEA-Advanced Motor Fuels Annual Report 2014).
- Futurol. Launched in 2008, the Futurol project aims to develop and commercialize a complete solution for producing cellulosic ethanol, from the field to the finished product. Thanks to its pilot plant (180 cubic meters per year [180 m3/yr]) and the involvement of its partners, the project has made breakthroughs in terms of the three key elements: pretreatment, enzymes, and yeasts. In 2015, the project passed a new key milestone in its development — the first R&D steps and the pilot plant validating the viability of the process under economic and environmental plans. A demonstration unit capable of producing 3,500 m3/yr is under construction on the Tereos site in Bucy-Le-Long for production launch in 2016.
- BioTfueL. The 180-million BioTfueL project aims to develop and bring to the market a chain of processes for producing second-generation biodiesel and bio-kerosene by using a thermochemical process. It is led by a group of six partners: Avril, Axens, CEA, IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN), Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, and Total. The demonstration phase work has started, and two preindustrial units are currently being built: one to pre-process the raw biomass material on the Avril site in Venette (Picardy), and one to produce liquid biofuel on Total’s refinery site in Dunkirk (Flanders establishment). Planned biomass processing capacity is 3 tons per hour. Tests are due to start in 2017.
- Gaya. This €57 million project involves BioSNG (synthetic natural gas made of renewable resources) production by a thermochemical process (bio-methane fuel produced by gasification followed by a methanation step). This project brings together 11 public research organizations and private partners. The R&D program amounts to €17 million, out of which a third is financed by ADEME. Engie (formerly GDF SUEZ Group) will coordinate the project. The R&D Gaya platform is due to start operation by the end of 2016.
- Syndiese. The aim of this project is to build a preindustrial demonstrator for producing second‑generation biofuels that has a capacity of 10 metric tons per hour (t/h). As a result of their R&D programs, Air Liquide and CEA are working together to develop a concept for transforming biomass into synthesis gas (BtS technology).
ADEME and other EV and PHEV Programs
The electrification of vehicles has great potential for reducing fuel consumption, limiting the impact of vehicles on the environment, and diversifying energy sources. Many projects aim to eliminate existing technical barriers to this goal.
In order to promote electric mobility, the French Government is encouraging local authority projects to install electric charging terminals through the “Investments for the Future” (PIA) program:
- BienVEnu Project. This is an innovative Smart City project to encourage deployment of EVs in collective housing launched by the project coordinator, European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), and seven partners, including CentraleSupélec, G2Mobility, MOPeasy, Nexans, Park’N’Plug, Tetragora, and Trialog. Supported by ADEME under the PIA program and by the Ile de France Region, BienVEnu aims to meet these challenges through a simple “all-inclusive” offering, designed to meet the needs of collective housing managers and residents in the Smart City.
Based in the Ile de France region, the 3-year project has a €10 million budget (with €4 million supported by PIA). Charging facilities will be deployed in three “pilot” buildings during the first year, then seven more during the second year, both in private and socially owned collective housing. Initially, about 10 charging stations will be installed in each building.
The project is designed around “charging clusters.” These provide an open-ended system that groups several charging stations together and can easily be expanded. This solution also limits the impact on both the local electricity distribution grid and the building’s power load, thus providing a cost reduction opportunity for the community.
In order to increase the potential for developing the EV market in Europe, the “Mobilité Hydrogène France” consortium gathered 29 partners (including Air Liquide, Alphéa Hydrogène, AREVA H2N, CEA, CETH2, EDF, ENGIE, GDF SUEZ, GRTgaz, IFPEN, INEVA-CNRT, Intelligent Energy, ITM Power, Linde, Michelin, McPhy Energy, PFA, Pôle Véhicule du Futur, PHyRENEES, Renault Trucks, Solvay, Symbio FCell, Tenerrdis, and WH2) to produce scenarios for the development of hydrogen-energy infrastructures across the nation. The HyWay project’s filling stations represent the initial building blocks of a future national network.
- HyWayProject. This project aims to put a fleet of 50 electric cars on the road with a fuel cell range extender, and the construction of two hydrogen filling stations in Lyon and Grenoble. The HyWay project is backed by the French Government, through DREAL (Regional Department of the Environment, Planning and Housing) and ADEME, and by the Rhône-Alpes region (co-financing €1.4 million) with the help of the Tennerdis local cluster focused on energy transition. It also aligns with ERDF objectives. The partners of the project are Air Liquide, CNR, GEG, McPhy Energy, PUS (COFELY Services), STEF, and Symbio FCell.
Other Projects Continuing until 2016
- HYDIVU. This €90 million project will focus on an innovative solution for diesel hybrid powertrain, light utility vehicles (i.e., family vans and Trafic and Master ranges [ranges are van category]). Renault has partnered with Valeo and Continental, leading suppliers to the automotive industry, and with IFP Énergies Nouvelles and LMS to support this project.
- ESSENCYELE. The aim of this project is to combine a high-efficiency gasoline engine with a mild hybrid low-voltage powertrain. The goal is to reduce the consumption of fuel by 25%, while using affordable technologies based on:
- A mild hybrid gasoline powertrain that takes advantage of all the synergies offered by the combined motorization;
- A high-efficiency, downsized engine that implements affordable technologies;
- Hybridization at low cost with an operating voltage of 48 V and with zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) capability; and
- A technological breakthrough in the electrical energy storage system due to the use of ultra capacitors.
The program, supported partly by ADEME (total budget is €79 million), involves the following partners: Valeo GKN, Hutchinson, PSA Peugeot Citroën, EFS, CORIA, IFP Énergies Nouvelles, Ecole Centrale de Lille, ENS Cachan, INP Toulouse, UTC Compiègne, and University of Valenciennes.
In the field of air transportation, R&D (particularly research focusing on alternative powertrains, combustion, and low-carbon fuels) is conducted in cooperation with European partners. Examples of projects in the aviation sector include the undergoing CORAC and CORE Jet Fuel projects (see details in IEA-Advanced Motor Fuels Annual Report 2014).
The DGAC (“Direction Générale de l’Aviation Civile”) is associated with the “Lab’line for the Future” initiative which was launched in 2014 by Air France. Since October 2014, a biofuel-powered Airbus A321 has been undertaking weekly flights between Toulouse and Paris-Orly. The biofuel used is farnesane. Produced by Total-Amyris, this biofuel comes from the fermentation of sugar cane. It does not compete with the food industry and meets the sustainability requirements recognized by the Commission. The DGAC-backed experiment should enable a study on the operational and socioeconomic impacts of the regular operation of flights using biofuels. First studies have shown that the use of farnesane could reduce GHG emissions by up to 80% compared to fossil-fuel-based kerosene.
After the end of the CAER (Alternative Fuels for Aeronautics) project, a new project, MOCASSIN, should begin in 2016. It will aim to develop modelling of the behaviour of conventional and alternative aviation fuel in order to have complementary models of experimental results.
By adopting the Law on Energy Transition (LTE), France is strongly mobilized to act against climate change. It sets up the conditions for a gradual, balanced change, based on the development of a diversified energy mix responding to environmental constraints. Among the goals, the LTE is targeting 15% consumption of advanced biofuels in transportation by 2030: 15% PCI of renewable energies, –30% of fossil energies.
Various studies have tried to put into perspective the LTE’s goal. Among these are the “Biofuels” working group from the NFI (Nouvelle France Industrielle) “New Resources” Solution which is composed of organizations and companies representing the biofuel industry, the refining sector, and car manufacturers, as well as representatives from the State (ministries and funding agency). Led by Mr. P. Barthélemy, Deputy General Director with IFP Energies Nouvelles, the working group has developed a scenario for the energy mix by 2030 supporting the development of advanced biofuels and meeting the objectives of the Law (15% of renewable energies, –30% of fossil energies). In addition to reaching these targets with 14.3% of biofuels and 0.7% of biogas and renewable electricity, the scenario foresees a 3.5 rebalancing diesel/gasoline ratio in France and the deployment of industrial units, including lignocellulosic biofuels production, necessary for its realization. The results of this scenario have been proposed for the elaboration of the Multi-Year Program of Energy, in particular for setting the objectives of the progressive incorporation of advanced biofuels.
The LTE also promotes several measures to lay the foundations for a sustainable mobility and levers of actions to develop the most environmentally friendly vehicles. These include:
- The obligation to purchase by the state and its public institutions, local authorities and their associations, national companies, car rental companies and taxi operators, environmentally friendly vehicles upon renewal of their fleet;
- The introduction of the possibility to define terms of “parking and traffic preferred” (including in areas with restricted circulation); and
- The introduction of a development strategy and infrastructure deployment of fuel alternative refuelling (e.g., natural gas, biogas).
The main objective of these measures is to reduce the local pollution generated by transport activities and GHG emissions via increasing low vehicle emissions.
Chiffres & Statistiques, 2015, Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, July
Chiffres clés de l’énergie Chiffres clés des énergies renouvelables, 2015, Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, December
Chiffres clés de l’énergie, 2016, 2015 Edition, Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, February
 Directive 2009/28/EC of April 23, 2009, requires Member States to have a “National Action Plan for Renewable Energy” that sets out objectives in terms of a “renewable energy mix” in 2020 and annual trajectories by energy type (i.e., biomass, hydro, wind, and solar).
 The Association Institut Carnot is a network of 34 Carnot institutes. It is a research network dedicated to fostering enterprise innovation. A major national multidisciplinary research task is to build economic development through technologies and innovation. Founded in 2006, the Carnot label was designed to develop partnership-based research, meaning that research efforts are conducted by public laboratories in partnership with socioeconomic players, primarily enterprises (from subject matter experts to large corporations), to serve the partners’ needs.